What is the structure of water?

Lately there has been much talk about structures in water. Advocates of these ideas claim that certain structures of a lacework pattern similar to crystals are formed in water, while adversaries call it pseudoscientific and quote well-known facts from physics textbooks. Who is right and what is the viewpoint of contemporary science on this matter? Let us try to get to the bottom of this, but first we must warn the kind reader that this is not a textbook, many of the provided information is controversial and requires further research, and understanding the following text might require some effort on your part.

First of all, let us define the underlying term – “structure”. This word is used in various fields of human knowledge, from crystallography to social studies, and in most cases the structures can be described by means of mathematics. The language of mathematical description unveils a fundamental affinity of the processes of origination, complication, transformation and disintegration of structures in many different areas of reality.

Structure is a process that is localized in certain areas of the medium. In other words, it is a process of a certain geometric form that can also re-form and move within the medium.

Water clusters are not monuments immortalized in stone, they are dynamic processes that constantly change and constantly reproduce themselves in a never-ending variety of their elements.

Modern notions about structures in liquids were formed from two directions: on the basis of experimental data and from quantum-mechanical computer modeling. When the results of both methods match, scientists rejoice and their ideas become actively and widely discussed. With liquids, structure takes on a different meaning as compared to the structure of solid objects. Molecules in liquids must move constantly, but at the same time they can maintain a certain order by grouping into the so-called non-crystalline clusters. During thermal motion at room temperatures these clusters behave like a single entity for a long time when traveling through the liquid. Although this disrupts the long-range order, the short-range order is still maintained.

According to the results shown by the slow neutron diffraction method, this short-range order covers at least 10 angstroms, and up to 15 angstroms in a more ordered supercooled heavy water.

After analyzing the experimental data, several mathematical models of structures in water were suggested, the best one being the model of two states mixture. It was successfully used for explaining many anomalous properties of water. During the mathematical simulation, coherent patterns of an extensive hydrogen bonding of the whirlpool type continued to exist during the whole process even when the orientation of individual molecules was promptly lost.


Analysis of Stimulated Electrophotonic Glow of Liquids

Currently considerable attention is being focused on the study of the structural properties of water and the possibility of data transfer through water. A lot of controversial information we may find concerning the memory of water (Johansson, 2009). According to the viewpoint that has shaped, the phenomena observed during the experiments are determined by the processes of clusters and clathrates formation, mainly at the atoms of admixtures (Del Giudice, Vitiello, 2006, 2010). The task of introducing these notions into the scope of contemporary scientific thinking requires, first of all, a set of probative and reproducible experimental facts. Water is a complex subject of study, and its properties depend on a great number of factors; this requires that several independent techniques should be used in parallel, and that new informative methods for the study of water properties should be developed and introduced into practice (Voeikov, Del Giudice, 2009).

The high degree of informativeness of the Dynamic Electrophotonic Capture (EPC) Analysis based on Gas Discharge Visualization (GDV) method (Korotkov et.al, 2002, 2010;) applied for studying liquid-phase subjects was first demonstrated during the study of the glow of microbiological cultures (Gudakova et al, 1990), blood of healthy people and cancer patients (Korotkov et al, 1998), reaction of blood to allergens (Sviridov et al, 2003), homeopathic remedies of 30? potency (Bell et al, 2003), and very small concentrations of various salts (Korotkov, Korotkin, 2001). The differences between the glow parameters of the NaCl, KCl, NaNO3 and KNO3, solutions and distilled water were observed until the 2-15 dilution; however, the dynamic trends of the 2-15 dilution and distilled water still had different directions.

Great interest has been roused by the studies directed at detecting the differences between the glow of natural and synthetic essential oils with identical chemical composition (Korotkov et al, 2004). The oils were analyzed in order to detect possible differences between oils that were obtained by means of natural and synthetic processes, between oils of organic and regular origin; between oils obtained in different climatic conditions and extracted by means of different methods; between oils with different optical activity; between fresh oils and oils that were oxidized by various methods. The combinations of oils under study did not show any statistically significant differences when analyzed by means of the gas chromatography method.

GDV camera Technique

The study of Electrophotonic parameters of liquids is based on using a commercially produced instrument “GDV Camera”. This instrument is well-known for analyzing stimulated photon emissions from human fingers, which is being used for health and well-being diagnostics (Measuring 2002), analysis of athletes (Bundzen et al. 2005), of altered states of consciousness (Bundzen et al. 2002. Korotkov et al. 2005), of the influence of music (Gibson, Williams 2005) and Qigong to people (Rubik, Brooks 2005), as well as of geo-active zones (Hacker et al. 2005) and minerals (Vainshelboim et al. 2005).

When the EPC parameters are measured for liquid subjects, a drop of the liquid is suspended at 2-3 mm distance above the glass surface of the optical window of the device, and the glow from the meniscus of the liquid is registered.

The volume of the liquid is about 5*10-3 ml.

The temperature is kept in the range 22-24 C, the relative humidity is maintained from 42% to 44%.

The train of triangular bipolar electrical 10 mcs impulses of amplitude 3 kV at a steep rate of 106 V/s and a repetition frequency of 103 Hz, is applied to the conductive transparent layer at the back side of the quartz electrode thus generating an electromagnetic field (EMF) at the surface of the electrode and around the drop.

Under the influence of this field, the drop produces a burst of electron-ion emissions and optical radiation light quanta in the visual and ultraviolet light regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. These particles and ions initiate electron-ion avalanches, which give rise to the sliding gas discharge along the dielectric surface (Korotkov, Korotkin 2001). A spatial distribution of discharge channels is registered through a glass electrode by the optical system with a charge coupled device TV camera, and then it is digitized in the computer.